POSTERS OF THE EAST
In Uzbekistan, at the beginning of the 20th century, there was no enduring tradition of drawing posters. Posters and public announcements were issued, as a rule, only in different versions of catchy artistic fonts. This trend persisted for a long time. The exhibition presents several posters of the second half of the twenties of the 20th century, inviting audiences to the Kukeldash Madrassah, on the stage of the People's House of the Old City (now the A. Khidoyatov Drama Theater) at the performances of the National Musical Theater. These are examples of typical for old Tashkent font bilingual posters.
But already in 1918, earned on the Resurrection Market (now - Theater Square), "Windows Turkrosta", which regularly exhibited agitational satirical posters with drawings and caricatures on topical topics. They were original, and they were not originally replicated. Only in the late 1920s the posters began to reproduce newspapers and magazines in Uzbekistan, especially the popular "Mushtum." The recognized artists of the poster genre were then the artists S. Malta, I. Tull and Usto Mumin (A. Nikolaev). The state considered the poster as a military means of political agitation. The artists were eager to respond promptly to the events that worried all and take personal participation in the restructuring of reality. From the artistic side, the schematic solutions of the works were quite acceptable in the poster production. Therefore, today many posters are perceived rather as characteristic documents of their time.
However, the achievements of Uzbekistan's poster artists have steadily increased. Before the Second World War, Vladimir Kaidalov (1907-1985) was the acknowledged leader of the team of graphic artists who worked in the poster genre. The exhibition presents his work in 1942 "There will be a holiday on our street" (No. 88 from the series of posters "Strike against the enemy"). This is one of his most famous posters. V. Kaidalov (he was later awarded the title of "People's Artist of Uzbekistan") attached great importance to the "poster" part of his own work, and the work "Will be on our street festival" chose from the dozens of posters created by him for half a century for the final exhibition dedicated to 70th anniversary of his creative activity (Tashkent - 1977). His first anti-fascist poster was printed in mass print on the third day after the outbreak of World War II.
Another master of the Uzbek poster was People's Artist of Uzbekistan Konstantin Cheprakov (1907-1972). From his military works at the exhibition you can get acquainted with the propaganda poster of 1941 "Victory depends on us." Very much in the genre of the anti-fascist poster artists A. Venediktov, B. Zhukov, V. Rozhdestvensky and others. In Tashkent, at the very beginning of the war (from July 27 to August 10, 1941), the first republican exhibition of the anti-fascist poster was successfully held, at which the graphics of Uzbekistan demonstrated many topical original works. Authors of posters tried to achieve in the generalized images of deep inner expressiveness. At extreme laconism, all the components of the poster, all the artistic means mattered here: the elaboration of the drawing, the reality of the colors, and the clarity of the text. Among these posters belongs the work of the honored art worker of Uzbekistan Boris Zhukov (1906-1987) with Gorky's words "If the enemy does not surrender, he is destroyed."
An interesting exhibit of the exhibition is a poster with a Polish banner and the inscription "Polacks do broni" (Poles - for war!). This is also a part of our history. As is known, in 1942, a division under the command of General Vladislav Anders was formed from interned military servicemen in Tashkent, covering himself with fame in the future on the battlefields with fascism in North Africa. The poster "Polacy do broni" is an eloquent artifact of those far-off and ambiguous events.
Creative charge, received by poster artists in Uzbekistan during the war, continued to operate in the second half of the 40s of the XX century, when the main focus of the state switched to economic issues. A typical example of the poster of that time is the work of the same Boris Zhukov "Farhad Hydro Power Plant is building a people-hero" (1947).
The special value of the exhibition is attached to the fact that it introduces us not with copies, but with originals of small-circulation editions, which, due to their purpose, are usually poorly preserved. Therefore, the exposition brings to the viewer the breathing of the age, which is especially important in our computer, virtual age.
Exhibition of the Central Asian poster of the 20-40's. XX century, on the other hand, is called upon to answer the recent interest (especially in the West) of a steadfast interest in the so-called. "Socialist realism." It is the poster that is a vivid representative of this trend in art, and the exhibits of the exhibition reveal before us the little-studied and half-forgotten works of outstanding artists of Uzbekistan and neighboring republics.