VADIM TOLSTOV (RUSSIA)
Ten authors, made in 10 different historical ways of photo printing, which give an opportunity over 100 years after the heyday, to see "what is pictorialism today". Also in late March, a friendly meeting and a master class by Vadim Tolstov "Pictorial Photography and Alternative Methods of Photo Printing" took place.
Ambrotypia. Wet Collodion Process
The process allows to get negative and positive images on the glass. In this case, very gentle halftones are transmitted, and the widest dynamic range.
In 1846, American medical student John Parker Maynard dissolved nitrocellulose in a mixture of alcohol and ether. He received a syrupy transparent liquid, which when dried gave a stable transparent film. So he invented the collodion. In medicine, he was used at one time as a plaster during the war: both disinfected and closed the wound. There are examples of its use during the Crimean War.
In 1847, Abel Niepce, the son of the great Niepce, the founder of photography, guessed using paper instead of paper and applying a layer of albumin, an egg white, that held the halogens of silver.
And, finally, Frederick Scott Archer in 1851 combined all these inventions into one - the use of collodion on glass to obtain a photo image.
Nowadays, this process involves about a hundred people around the world.
One of the earliest methods of photographic printing, which gives prints of a blue hue. This is the simplest and inexpensive process: it requires only two inexpensive reagents. Paper or cloth can be used as a substrate. This process is interesting for both beginners and advanced photographers.
Cyanotypy was invented by Sir John F. W. Herschel (1792-1871) by an astronomer and physicist. In 1842 he first published a description of Cyanotype in "On the Action of the Rays of the Solar Spectrum on Vegetable Colors, and on Some New Photographic Processes." Herschel was one of the founders of photography. It was he who pushed William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877), the creator of the first negative-positive process, to the use of sodium thiosulfate (now this is all known fixation) for transferring into water-soluble form unreacted silver halides (image fixation) and relief washing out of the image. The term "Photography" was also introduced by Herschel. At first, cyanotypy was practically not used in photography. Herschel came up with this process for copying mathematical tables. Anna Atkins (1799-1871), a British biologist, in 1843 published a limited edition of the book, which first used photographs of plants (more precisely, photograms) performed by cyanotypy.
Several US companies even sold ready-made cyanotypes in the period from 1870-1930.
In my opinion, this is one of the most interesting, many productive and time-consuming processes of photo printing. And almost the only one giving the opportunity to receive color prints. Temperatur, allows to get an image of any shade, because the drawing is created gradually by layer after layer. Several layers of the same color result in a single common layer, the row of which then forms the final image.
Temperature-emulsion is a photosensitive mixture and like any photographic emulsion, it requires no light, but its sensitivity differs from the ordinary photographic emulsion. The sun and bright daylight should be excluded. It consists of three main parts: eggs, a sensitizer (Ammonium bichromate) and a colorant.
Since ancient times, eggs are used to create pigmented patterns. When creating photographs, they give a surface quality that is similar to the classic pattern.